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React JS

React is a JavaScript library for building user interfaces.

React is used to build single page applications.

React allows us to create reusable UI components.


Python is a popular programming language. It was created by Guido van Rossum, and released in 1991.

It is used for:

  • web development (server-side),
  • software development,
  • mathematics,
  • system scripting.

What can Python do?

  • Python can be used on a server to create web applications.
  • Python can be used alongside software to create workflows.
  • Python can connect to database systems. It can also read and modify files.
  • Python can be used to handle big data and perform complex mathematics.
  • Python can be used for rapid prototyping, or for production-ready software development.

Why Python?

  • Python works on different platforms (Windows, Mac, Linux, Raspberry Pi, etc).
  • Python has a simple syntax similar to the English language.
  • Python has syntax that allows developers to write programs with fewer lines than some other programming languages.
  • Python runs on an interpreter system, meaning that code can be executed as soon as it is written. This means that prototyping can be very quick.
  • Python can be treated in a procedural way, an object-oriented way or a functional way.

Good to know

  • The most recent major version of Python is Python 3, which we shall be using in this tutorial. However, Python 2, although not being updated with anything other than security updates, is still quite popular.
  • In this tutorial Python will be written in a text editor. It is possible to write Python in an Integrated Development Environment, such as Thonny, Pycharm, Netbeans or Eclipse which are particularly useful when managing larger collections of Python files.

Python Syntax compared to other programming languages

  • Python was designed for readability, and has some similarities to the English language with influence from mathematics.
  • Python uses new lines to complete a command, as opposed to other programming languages which often use semicolons or parentheses.
  • Python relies on indentation, using whitespace, to define scope; such as the scope of loops, functions and classes. Other programming languages often use curly-brackets for this purpose.


What is Bootstrap?

  • Bootstrap is a free front-end framework for faster and easier web development
  • Bootstrap includes HTML and CSS based design templates for typography, forms, buttons, tables, navigation, modals, image carousels and many other, as well as optional JavaScript plugins
  • Bootstrap also gives you the ability to easily create responsive designs

What is Responsive Web Design?

Responsive web design is about creating web sites which automatically adjust themselves to look good on all devices, from small phones to large desktops.


CodeIgniter is an application development framework, which can be used to develop websites, using PHP. It is an Open Source framework. It has a very rich set of functionality, which will increase the speed of website development work.

If you know PHP well, then CodeIgniter will make your task easier. It has a very rich set of libraries and helpers. By using CodeIgniter, you will save a lot of time, if you are developing a website from scratch. Not only that, a website built in CodeIgniter is secure too, as it has the ability to prevent various attacks that take place through websites.

CodeIgniter Features

Some of the important features of CodeIgniter are listed below −

  • Model-View-Controller Based System

  • Extremely Light Weight

  • Full Featured database classes with support for several platforms.

  • Query Builder Database Support

  • Form and Data Validation

  • Security and XSS Filtering

  • Session Management

  • Email Sending Class. Supports Attachments, HTML/Text email, multiple protocols (sendmail, SMTP, and Mail) and more.

  • Image Manipulation Library (cropping, resizing, rotating, etc.). Supports GD, ImageMagick, and NetPBM

  • File Uploading Class

  • FTP Class

  • Localization

  • Pagination

  • Data Encryption

  • Benchmarking

  • Full Page Caching

  • Error Logging

  • Application Profiling

  • Calendaring Class

  • User Agent Class

  • Zip Encoding Class

  • Template Engine Class

  • Trackback Class

  • XML-RPC Library

  • Unit Testing Class

  • Search-engine Friendly URLs

  • Flexible URI Routing

  • Support for Hooks and Class Extensions

  • Large library of “helper” functions

Spring Boot

Spring Boot is an open-source Java-based framework used to create a micro Service. It is developed by the Pivotal Team and is used to build stand-alone and production-ready spring applications. This chapter will give you an introduction to Spring Boot and familiarizes you with its basic concepts.

What is MicroService?

Micro Service is an architecture that allows developers to develop and deploy services independently. Each service running has its own process and this achieves the lightweight model to support business applications.


Microservices offers the following advantages to their developers −

  • Easy deployment
  • Simple scalability
  • Compatible with Containers
  • Minimum configuration
  • Lesser production time

What is Spring Boot?

Spring Boot provides a good platform for Java developers to develop a stand-alone and production-grade spring application that you can just run. You can get started with minimum configurations without the need for an entire Spring configuration setup.


Spring Boot offers the following advantages to its developers −

  • Easy to understand and develop spring applications
  • Increases productivity
  • Reduces the development time


Spring Boot is designed with the following goals −

  • To avoid complex XML configuration in Spring
  • To develop a production-ready Spring application in an easier way
  • To reduce the development time and run the application independently
  • Offer an easier way of getting started with the application

Why Spring Boot?

You can choose Spring Boot because of the features and benefits it offers as given here −

  • It provides a flexible way to configure Java Beans, XML configurations, and Database Transactions.

  • It provides powerful batch processing and manages REST endpoints.

  • In Spring Boot, everything is auto-configured; no manual configurations are needed.

  • It offers an annotation-based spring application

  • Eases dependency management

  • It includes Embedded Servlet Container


Oracle database is a relational database management system. It is known as Oracle database, OracleDB, or simply Oracle. It is produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation.

Oracle database is the first database designed for enterprise grid computing. Enterprise grid computing provides the most flexible and cost-effective way to manage information and applications.

Different editions of the Oracle database

Following are the four editions of the Oracle database.

  • Enterprise Edition: It is the most robust and secure edition. It offers all features, including superior performance and security.
  • Standard Edition: It provides the base functionality for users that do not require Enterprise Edition's robust package.
  • Express Edition (XE): It is the lightweight, free and limited Windows, and Linux edition.
  • Oracle Lite: It is designed for mobile devices.

The Oracle Corporation

Oracle Corporation is the largest software company in the field of database business. Its relational database was the first to support SQL which has since become the industry standard.

Oracle database is one of the most trusted and widely used relational database engines. The biggest rival of the Oracle database is Microsoft's SQL Server.

History of Oracle

Oracle was originally developed by Lawrence Ellison (Larry Ellison) and his two friends and former co-worker in 1977. Oracle DB runs on most major platforms like Windows, UNIX, Linux, and Mac OS.


Agile is a software development methodology to build a software incrementally using short iterations of 1 to 4 weeks so that the development process is aligned with the changing business needs. Instead of a single-pass development of 6 to 18 months where all the requirements and risks are predicted upfront, Agile adopts a process of frequent feedback where a workable product is delivered after 1 to 4 week iteration.


IoT systems allow users to achieve deeper automation, analysis, and integration within a system. They improve the reach of these areas and their accuracy. IoT utilizes existing and emerging technology for sensing, networking, and robotics.

IoT exploits recent advances in software, falling hardware prices, and modern attitudes towards technology. Its new and advanced elements bring major changes in the delivery of products, goods, and services; and the social, economic, and political impact of those changes.

IoT − Key Features

The most important features of IoT include artificial intelligence, connectivity, sensors, active engagement, and small device use. A brief review of these features is given below −

  • AI − IoT essentially makes virtually anything “smart”, meaning it enhances every aspect of life with the power of data collection, artificial intelligence algorithms, and networks. This can mean something as simple as enhancing your refrigerator and cabinets to detect when milk and your favorite cereal run low, and to then place an order with your preferred grocer.

  • Connectivity − New enabling technologies for networking, and specifically IoT networking, mean networks are no longer exclusively tied to major providers. Networks can exist on a much smaller and cheaper scale while still being practical. IoT creates these small networks between its system devices.

  • Sensors − IoT loses its distinction without sensors. They act as defining instruments which transform IoT from a standard passive network of devices into an active system capable of real-world integration.

  • Active Engagement − Much of today's interaction with connected technology happens through passive engagement. IoT introduces a new paradigm for active content, product, or service engagement.

  • Small Devices − Devices, as predicted, have become smaller, cheaper, and more powerful over time. IoT exploits purpose-built small devices to deliver its precision, scalability, and versatility.

IoT − Advantages

The advantages of IoT span across every area of lifestyle and business. Here is a list of some of the advantages that IoT has to offer −

  • Improved Customer Engagement − Current analytics suffer from blind-spots and significant flaws in accuracy; and as noted, engagement remains passive. IoT completely transforms this to achieve richer and more effective engagement with audiences.

  • Technology Optimization − The same technologies and data which improve the customer experience also improve device use, and aid in more potent improvements to technology. IoT unlocks a world of critical functional and field data.

  • Reduced Waste − IoT makes areas of improvement clear. Current analytics give us superficial insight, but IoT provides real-world information leading to more effective management of resources.

  • Enhanced Data Collection − Modern data collection suffers from its limitations and its design for passive use. IoT breaks it out of those spaces, and places it exactly where humans really want to go to analyze our world. It allows an accurate picture of everything.

IoT − Disadvantages

Though IoT delivers an impressive set of benefits, it also presents a significant set of challenges. Here is a list of some its major issues −

  • Security − IoT creates an ecosystem of constantly connected devices communicating over networks. The system offers little control despite any security measures. This leaves users exposed to various kinds of attackers.

  • Privacy − The sophistication of IoT provides substantial personal data in extreme detail without the user's active participation.

  • Complexity − Some find IoT systems complicated in terms of design, deployment, and maintenance given their use of multiple technologies and a large set of new enabling technologies.

  • Flexibility − Many are concerned about the flexibility of an IoT system to integrate easily with another. They worry about finding themselves with several conflicting or locked systems.

  • Compliance − IoT, like any other technology in the realm of business, must comply with regulations. Its complexity makes the issue of compliance seem incredibly challenging when many consider standard software compliance a battle.


In general, developing a mobile application is a complex and challenging task. There are many frameworks available to develop a mobile application. Android provides a native framework based on Java language and iOS provides a native framework based on Objective-C / Swift language.

However, to develop an application supporting both the OSs, we need to code in two different languages using two different frameworks. To help overcome this complexity, there exist mobile frameworks supporting both OS. These frameworks range from a simple HTML-based hybrid mobile application framework (which uses HTML for User Interface and JavaScript for application logic) to the complex language-specific framework (which do the heavy lifting of converting code to native code). Irrespective of their simplicity or complexity, these frameworks always have many disadvantages, one of the main drawbacks being their slow performance.

In this scenario, Flutter – a simple and high-performance framework based on Dart language, provides high performance by rendering the UI directly in the operating system’s canvas rather than through the native framework.

Flutter also offers many ready-to-use widgets (UI) to create a modern application. These widgets are optimized for the mobile environments and designing the application using widgets is as simple as designing HTML.

To be specific, the Flutter application is itself a widget. Flutter widgets also support animations and gestures. The application logic is based on reactive programming. The widget may optionally have a state. By changing the state of the widget, Flutter will automatically (reactive programming) compare the widget’s state (old and new) and render the widget with only the necessary changes instead of re-rendering the whole widget.

We shall discuss the complete architecture in the coming chapters.

Features of Flutter

Flutter framework offers the following features to developers −

  • Modern and reactive framework.

  • Uses Dart programming language and it is very easy to learn.

  • Fast development.

  • Beautiful and fluid user interfaces.

  • Huge widget catalog.

  • Runs the same UI for multiple platforms.

  • High-performance application.

Advantages of Flutter

Flutter comes with beautiful and customizable widgets for high-performance and outstanding mobile applications. It fulfills all the customer needs and requirements. Besides these, Flutter offers many more advantages as mentioned below −

  • Dart has a large repository of software packages that lets you extend the capabilities of your application.

  • Developers need to write just a single code base for both applications (both Android and iOS platforms). Flutter may be extended to other platforms as well in the future.

  • Flutter needs lesser testing. Because of its single code base, it is sufficient if we write automated tests once for both platforms.

  • Flutter’s simplicity makes it a good candidate for fast development. Its customization capability and extensibility make it even more powerful.

  • With Flutter, developers have full control over the widgets and their layout.

  • Flutter offers great developer tools, with amazing hot reload.

Disadvantages of Flutter

Despite its many advantages, flutter has the following drawbacks in it −

  • Since it is coded in Dart language, a developer needs to learn a new language (though it is easy to learn).

  • The modern framework tries to separate logic and UI as much as possible but, in Flutter, the user interface and logic are intermixed. We can overcome this using smart coding and using high-level module to separate user interface and logic.

  • Flutter is yet another framework to create a mobile application. Developers are having a hard time choosing the right development tools in a hugely populated segment.


What is Node.js?

  • Node.js is an open source server environment
  • Node.js is free
  • Node.js runs on various platforms (Windows, Linux, Unix, Mac OS X, etc.)
  • Node.js uses JavaScript on the server

Why Node.js?

Node.js uses asynchronous programming!

A common task for a web server can be to open a file on the server and return the content to the client.

Here is how PHP or ASP handles a file request:

  1. Sends the task to the computer's file system.
  2. Waits while the file system opens and reads the file.
  3. Returns the content to the client.
  4. Ready to handle the next request.

Here is how Node.js handles a file request:

  1. Sends the task to the computer's file system.
  2. Ready to handle the next request.
  3. When the file system has opened and read the file, the server returns the content to the client.

Node.js eliminates the waiting, and simply continues with the next request.

Node.js runs single-threaded, non-blocking, asynchronously programming, which is very memory efficient.

What Can Node.js Do?

  • Node.js can generate dynamic page content
  • Node.js can create, open, read, write, delete, and close files on the server
  • Node.js can collect form data
  • Node.js can add, delete, modify data in your database

What is a Node.js File?

  • Node.js files contain tasks that will be executed on certain events
  • A typical event is someone trying to access a port on the server
  • Node.js files must be initiated on the server before having any effect
  • Node.js files have extension ".js"


What is Java?

Java is a popular programming language, created in 1995.

It is owned by Oracle, and more than 3 billion devices run Java.

It is used for:

  • Mobile applications (specially Android apps)
  • Desktop applications
  • Web applications
  • Web servers and application servers
  • Games
  • Database connection
  • And much, much more!

Why Use Java?

  • Java works on different platforms (Windows, Mac, Linux, Raspberry Pi, etc.)
  • It is one of the most popular programming language in the world
  • It is easy to learn and simple to use
  • It is open-source and free
  • It is secure, fast and powerful
  • It has a huge community support (tens of millions of developers)
  • Java is an object oriented language which gives a clear structure to programs and allows code to be reused, lowering development costs
  • As Java is close to C++ and C#, it makes it easy for programmers to switch to Java or vice versa


PostgreSQL is a powerful, open source object-relational database system. It has more than 15 years of active development phase and a proven architecture that has earned it a strong reputation for reliability, data integrity, and correctness.

This tutorial will give you a quick start with PostgreSQL and make you comfortable with PostgreSQL programming.

What is PostgreSQL?

PostgreSQL (pronounced as post-gress-Q-L) is an open-source relational database management system (DBMS) developed by a worldwide team of volunteers. PostgreSQL is not controlled by any corporation or other private entity and the source code is available free of charge.

Key Features of PostgreSQL

PostgreSQL runs on all major operating systems, including Linux, UNIX (AIX, BSD, HP-UX, SGI IRIX, Mac OS X, Solaris, Tru64), and Windows. It supports text, images, sounds, and video, and includes programming interfaces for C / C++, Java, Perl, Python, Ruby, Tcl, and Open Database Connectivity (ODBC).

PostgreSQL supports a large part of the SQL standard and offers many modern features including the following −

  • Complex SQL queries
  • SQL Sub-selects
  • Foreign keys
  • Trigger
  • Views
  • Transactions
  • Multiversion concurrency control (MVCC)
  • Streaming Replication (as of 9.0)
  • Hot Standby (as of 9.0)

You can check the official documentation of PostgreSQL to understand the above-mentioned features. PostgreSQL can be extended by the user in many ways. For example by adding new −

  • Data types
  • Functions
  • Operators
  • Aggregate functions
  • Index methods

Procedural Languages Support

PostgreSQL supports four standard procedural languages, which allows the users to write their own code in any of the languages and it can be executed by PostgreSQL database server. These procedural languages are - PL/pgSQL, PL/Tcl, PL/Perl, and PL/Python. Besides, other non-standard procedural languages like PL/PHP, PL/V8, PL/Ruby, PL/Java, etc., are also supported.

Angular JS

Angular 7 is an open-source JavaScript framework for building web applications and apps in JavaScript, HTML, and Typescript which is a superset of JavaScript. Angular provides built-in features for animation, HTTP service, and materials which in turn have features such as auto-complete, navigation, toolbar, menus, etc. The code is written in Typescript, which compiles to JavaScript and displays the same in the browser.

Why Learn Angular 7?

Angular 7 is a MUST for students and working professionals to become great Software Engineers especially when they are working in Software Development Domain. I will list down some of the key advantages of learning Angular 7:

  • Angular is the most stable and most popular javascript-based platform nowadays.

  • Angular development is a complete suite for application development and you can have the following roles after learning Angular in a company.

    • Web developer

    • Web app developer

    • UI developer

    • UX developer

    • Front-end developer

    • JavaScript developer

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